These resources were created and/or collected by Outreach staff to assist you in better understanding how to teach students with LBLD.

  • Brain decline and dementia or aging as memory loss concept for brain cancer decay or an Alzheimer's disease with the medical icon of a old rusting mechanical gears and cog wheels of metal in the shape of a human head with rust.

    Working Memory Overview

    Updated September 18, 2023 There are three types of memory. Working memory can be defined as “a limited capacity system allowing for the temporary storage and manipulation of information necessary for such complex cognitive tasks as comprehension, learning and reasoning” (Baddeley, 2000, p. 418). Put more simply, working memory refers to the ability to hold

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  • Poetry in the Age of Science of Reading

    by Timothy Rasinski, PhD September 1, 2023 The Science of Reading (SoR) movement has become a ubiquitous part of the teaching of reading in the United States and beyond. One of the hallmarks of SoR has been a greater emphasis on decodable texts for younger readers and informational texts for building knowledge among older readers. 

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  • Back to Basics: The Value of Repetition

    by Katherine Kinsman September 12, 2023 In many ways, for educators, the start of the school year is our new year. Similar to New Year’s Day, at the beginning of the school year, I find myself in conversations about setting goals and in discussions about making resolutions to implement a variety of new policies and

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  • An image of a finding the main idea strategy

    Finding the Main Idea

    Updated August 31, 2023 A commonly used reading comprehension strategy is to teach students how to find the main idea. But why does this strategy work?  To support students’ understanding and to help lessen students’ cognitive demands, the research recommends that educators explicitly teach students about text structure. What Works Clearinghouse offers recommendations for improving

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  • Research Writing Process: Organize, Outline, and Draft

    March 1, 2023 The Institute of Education Sciences (IES) report titled Teaching Secondary Students to Write Effectively asserts that “Effective writing is a vital component of students’ literacy achievement, and writing is a critical communication tool for students to convey thoughts and opinions, describe ideas and events, and analyze information” (Graham et al, 2016, p.1).  

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  • Spelling Instruction: A Diagnostic-Prescriptive Approach

    by Paul Howard April 23, 2023 If you are around my age, you might remember spelling in elementary school as something akin to the following: Your well-intentioned teacher gave you a list of words on Monday, and on Friday she (usually she) gave you a dictated test of those (usually 10 or so) words. I

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  • A student taking purposeful research notes

    The Research Writing Process

    Updated February 13, 2023 Why do students with LD struggle with the research and writing process? In their review of recent research into writing interventions for students with learning disabilities, Amy Gillespie Rouse and Ashley Sandoval (2018) make the following observation: “Compared to their peers without learning disabilities, these students spend less time planning for

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  • The Hidden Demands of Writing

    December 12, 2022 Writing is a complex, high-level task that incorporates and synthesizes many language skills from phonemic awareness to handwriting to critical thinking and analysis. In their research to confirm the efficacy of Self-Regulated Strategy Development, Steve Graham and Karen Harris asserted that “skilled writing was a highly demanding process that was self-directed, requiring

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  • Notebook open, with pen lying across

    Research Writing: Finding and Evaluating Sources

    May 1, 2023 Writing a cohesive research paper requires an extensive amount of self-talk, self questioning, and self-monitoring. This internal language or metacognitive process can be under-developed in students with LBLD as they often allocate so much cognitive energy understanding and reading sources, as well as composing their thoughts based on this information, that they

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