These resources were created and/or collected by Outreach staff to assist you in better understanding how to teach students with LBLD.

  • The Executive Functions and Literacy

    November 1, 2023 When students are successful in school, they are able to manage the academic demands inherent in a classroom. Specifically, this management requires a set of overlapping and interdependent skill sets that include language and literacy skills, study skills, self-efficacy, and intact executive function skills.  The graphic below provides a visual representation of

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  • Hot and Cold Executive Function Skills

    November 15, 2022 The executive functions are at the core of learning and are crucial for success in school and beyond. These cognitive processes allow us to approach a task or goal, whether it is academic or non-academic, manage our attention, plan each step, and regulate our emotions to achieve the desired outcome. Specifically in

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  • Executive Function: What to Know

    September 1, 2016 What is Executive Function? The idea that there is a system of functions within our brain that helps us coordinate our actions, direct our behavior, and manage our emotional response is a long-standing concept. The term “executive functions” was created by Karl Pribram in the 1970s through his research that attempted to

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  • The Language-Based Classroom Environment Adapted for the Remote Classroom

    October 27, 2020 As online learning takes center stage this year, it is important to create digital spaces that support all learners. Taking the main ideas from one of our past, most popular Free Teaching Strategies, Language-Based Classroom Environment, we have reimagined these best practices for the hybrid classroom.   A cornerstone of language-based instruction is

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  • A boy reading in a classroom

    Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

    Updated March 6th, 2024 Landmark’s Sixth Teaching Principle encourages teachers to create opportunities to include students in the learning process, and this allows students to become aware of how they learn and why certain skills benefit them. As a result, students are more motivated and more likely to apply those skills when working independently. In

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  • Boy tired of study and sleeping near the clock

    Basic Time Management Skills

    Being able to tell clock time is different from understanding the concept of time. Many students can read the clock perfectly well, but when asked to estimate how long an assignment will take, they can seldom provide an accurate answer. While some grossly underestimate the time required and set themselves up for disappointment and frustration,

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  • Executive Function: Activation Routines

    Several Outreach resources are related to six aspects of executive function: activation, focus, effort, emotion, memory, and action.1 In addition, we’ll continue to organize the resources in relation to Landmark’s Six Teaching Principles™. This resource focuses on strategies to activate students toward successful task completion by exploring reference tools, working on time management, and cueing students to empower them

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  • Children reading on an ipad with a teacher assisting them

    Accessible Technology Across Grade Levels

    April 13, 2017 How to Choose Technology With a variety of technology options available for classroom use, it can be difficult to know what to choose and when to incorporate it. Joy Zabala’s SETT Frameworks provide helpful documents to aid teachers in determining if a technology is appropriate, as well as help them to consider

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  • A young boy using technology to support his learning

    Technology to Support Executive Function

    December 13, 2016 What is Executive Function? Executive Function encompasses a variety of specific skills and abilities, including activation, focus, effort, emotion, memory, and action. Previous Free Landmark Teaching Strategies have further explained each of these categories with connections to how to implement specific approaches in class instruction. Hill, Skill, and Will by Gardner &

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  • A student completing math problems on a desk with a calculator

    Executive Function and Action

    There are many aspects of executive function—from activation to focus, to effort, emotion, and memory. The final component is action, which Thomas E. Brown notes in his article “Executive Functions by Thomas Brown,” incorporates both monitoring and self-regulating. However, without knowing what a teacher expects, students will have more difficulty determining if they are on

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  • Students in a math class working with highlighters

    Executive Function and Effort

    We can enliven students’ effort by making sure they are “ready to learn.” We need to help students define a clear purpose for the activity, give specific directions, provide references (such as agendas or steps for a process), and offer cues to begin or transition to the next step. Furthermore, requiring students to brainstorm their

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  • A young boy looking intently at a book holding a pencil.

    Executive Function and Focus

    Sustaining focus (and effort) for long enough to complete a task, and shifting focus to a new task when appropriate are vital executive skills. Students who have difficulty sustaining and shifting focus benefit from being taught how to (and practicing) analyzing and breaking a task into sub-tasks or steps to follow. First, students need to

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  • A student and a teacher having a discussion at a table

    Executive Function and Memory

    The ability to access and utilize memory is an important part of executive function. Thomas E. Brown, of Yale University, highlights memory as one of six clusters of executive function. He writes: “Chronic difficulties with memory appear to be a core problem… but the impairments are not generally with long-term storage memory; instead they involve

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  • A picture of a young male smiling

    Executive Function: Addressing Emotion through Communication

    Students’ emotional responses to challenging situations can influence their concentration, perseverance, application of learned skills, and interactions with others. Abraham Maslow’s expanded hierarchy of needs explains how physical and emotional safety must be satisfied in order to allow people to address cognitive and higher levels of human needs. In order to better create space for

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  • A picture of different colored key with words written on them

    Lesson Planning Strategies

    On Overview of Resources Many of our resources have focused on working memory and processing speed under the umbrella of Executive Function. Within those two topics, the role of anxiety and the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory have also been introduced. • Executive Function: Dr. Thomas E. Brown’s article explores the 6 clusters of executive function

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