These resources were created and/or collected by Outreach staff to assist you in better understanding how to teach students with LBLD.

  • Reading Development: What to Know

    Reading is a complex process that requires the development and interaction of a variety of skills. Although reading is a crucial part of navigating the modern world, it is important to understand that the ability to read is a recent human invention and is not an inherent, genetic trait that all people possess. Humans can

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  • Reading Comprehension: What to Know

    In order for students to comprehend the information that they read, a variety of factors must be intact. First, students must understand the structure of the language they are reading, including grammar, syntax, and figures of speech. Students also need to be able to quickly decode words in order to read the text fluently, and

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  • Landmark Teaching Principle #6: Include Students in the Learning Process

    Students are not passive receptacles to fill with information. They come to class with their own frames of reference. Their unique experiences and knowledge affect them as learners and should be taken into account. Therefore, during every exercise, teachers should accept student input as much as possible. They should justify assignments, accept suggestions, solicit ideas,

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  • Use Multisensory Approaches

    At the most basic level, our brains perceive stimuli through the five senses—seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling. Studies show that most people learn best and retain the most information when  ideas are presented in a multisensory fashion. Novice teachers are often advised to let the wisdom of Confucius guide their planning: “I hear and

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  • A boy in a striped shirt sits at a table while a teacher helps him

    Provide Models

    From infancy onward, we all need models to learn new skills. Infants’ babbling mirrors the sounds of caregivers and lays the foundation that enables them to develop spoken language. Children learn by watching models and mimicking—to dress themselves, show manners, and swing on a swing set, for example. In fact, throughout our lives we depend

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  • Finding the Main Idea: Prerequisite Comprehension Skills

    Finding the main idea or understanding what you read is one link in a chain of reading skills, and each skill relies on and supports one another. To comprehend text, students must first be able to understand the phonological components of language (that sounds are represented by letters), then they must be able to decode

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  • Mathematical Mindsets

    Jo Boaler, a British education author and a professor of mathematics education at Stanford Graduate School of Education, has completed extensive research on how we learn math from early infancy through adulthood. By studying parts of our brain where math facts are held and manipulated, she concludes that many of the methodologies currently used to

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  • Students eagerly participate in a classroom lesson

    Promoting Student Interest and Motivation

    The Importance of Interest and Motivation Recent research about brain functions demonstrates the value of interest and motivation in the development of academic skills, specifically for secondary students. FMRIs have allowed researchers to study the activation of different areas of the brain during specific tasks. This research suggests that students need to be interested and

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  • An educator measures a student's reading progress while he reads aloud

    Measuring Reading Progress

    How is Reading Progress Measured? Reading is a complex process that involves a variety of skills and components. Before determining a way to measure reading progress, the specific reading skill being measured must first be identified. Please note that phonemic awareness is not included here as that particular skill generally requires more complex progress monitoring.

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  • Student practices vocabulary words in structured exercises with support from teacher

    Vocabulary Instruction

    Why is Vocabulary Instruction Important? Researchers know that vocabulary knowledge is strongly linked to academic success. Understanding vocabulary is the cornerstone of accessing background knowledge, communicating effectively, and understanding and learning new ideas. Students with strong word knowledge and vocabularies are able to understand new concepts and ideas more quickly than students with more limited

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  • An educator models fluent oral reading while a small group of students follows along

    Oral Reading Fluency

    What is Oral Reading Fluency? While the definition of oral reading fluency typically focuses on the rate and the correct pronunciation of words, tone and expression need to also be considered when evaluating, discussing, and addressing oral reading fluency. Expression (Intonation) and Volume should be varied and conversational. Students should be able to match their expression

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  • Letter blocks spell out the word "play", which has 3 phonemes. This activity supports phonemic awareness and phonics development.

    Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study

    Defining Terms Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes (smallest unit of sound) in spoken words. For instance, there are three phonemes in the word tree (/t/ /r/ /e/). Phonics is a method of instruction that requires the ability to connect sounds to letters and letter combinations in order to accurately read

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  • Elementary students practice reading and writing sight words with individual white boards

    The Reading and Writing Connection

    What is Reading? Reading is a complex process, and reading skills are considered to develop in a hierarchy according to Jeanne Chall’s Stages of Reading Development. In order to support the development of reading skills, it is essential that educators understand how reading develops. What is the Writing Connection? Reading and writing largely depend upon the

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  • A stack of Landmark School Books and Publications

    Landmark’s Six Teaching Principles™

    The foundation of all instruction at Landmark School is made up of six important teaching principles. These principles guide how teachers approach the presentation of both content and skills across the curriculum. Teaching Principle #1: Provide Opportunities for Success Providing students with opportunities for success is key. Failure and poor self-esteem often result when teachers challenge

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  • Evaluating the Social Emotional Learning Approach

    Why Teach Social Emotional Learning Skills? Research suggests that Social Emotional Learning skills (self-awareness, self-management, relationship skills, social awareness, and responsible decision making) are a core component of student success. Learning is a social process, and schools are often the hub of students’ social interactions. If student progress is hampered by emotions, then learning cannot

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  • Two students in a classroom with a girl raising her hand

    Working Memory: Classroom Strategies

    What is working memory? Working memory requires the brain to learn and manipulate new information in such a way that it can be translated into long-term memory and referenced again. It is essentially the work station of the brain: learning and filtering new information, working with that information, and then storing it for future use.

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  • Students practice responsible decision making by choosing what they want to eat at school

    Responsible Decision Making (Social Emotional Learning)

    What is Responsible Decision Making? Responsible decision making is defined by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) as “the ability to make constructive choices about personal behavior and social interactions based on ethical standards, safety concerns, and social norms.” Essentially, all aspects of a potential decision and its consequences must be considered

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  • Students draw different color stick figures on a canvas banner for social awareness and unity

    Social Awareness (Social Emotional Learning)

    What is Social Awareness? Social awareness is defined by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) as, “the ability to take the perspective of and empathize with others, including those from diverse backgrounds and cultures. [It is] the ability to understand social and ethical norms for behavior and to recognize family, school, and

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  • Students develop their relationship skills by working together on a group project

    Social Emotional Learning: Developing Relationship Skills

    What are Relationship Skills? Relationship skills are an important component of Social Emotional Learning. According to the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), relationship skills pertain to “the ability to establish and maintain healthy and rewarding relationships with diverse individuals and groups.” To demonstrate appropriate relationship skills, students must learn to: Communicate clearly:

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  • Silhouette of student meditating with mindfulness words surrounding

    Mindfulness in the Classroom

    What is Mindfulness? Mindfulness is an ancient Buddhist practice meaning, “to live fully in the present moment with intention and without judgment” (Kriyonich, 2017). It’s the act of paying attention to what you are doing while you are doing it (Buck, 2017) or being present in the moment. Why Teach Mindfulness? Study outcomes suggest that

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  • Self-Management (Social Emotional Learning)

    What is Self-Management? Self-management is an essential component of social emotional learning. Building from the foundation of self-awareness, the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) defines self-management as, “the ability to successfully regulate one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviors in different situations.” This regulation is achieved by effectively managing stress, controlling impulses, and motivating oneself.

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  • Self-Awareness (Social Emotional Learning)

    What is Self-Awareness? The first main skill associated with Social Emotional Learning is self-awareness. According to the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), self-awareness is the ability to accurately recognize one’s own emotions, thoughts, and values, and how they influence behavior. It is the ability to accurately assess one’s strengths and limitations, with

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  • Social Emotional Learning Overview

    What is Social Emotional Learning? Social Emotional Learning (SEL) is “generally defined as the capacity to identify and manage emotions, resolve problems effectively, and establish healthy personal relationships” (Berman, 2016). When referring to SEL, there are five main skills included: Self-awareness Self-management Relationship skills Social awareness Responsible decision-making Why Social Emotional Skills? According to a

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  • A hand on a key board

    Modeling Writing in Content Areas

    Providing models or templates for students does not mean doing an assignment for them. Models allow students to see what the teacher’s standards and requirements look like in a finished product, and offer them a point of comparison for their own work. Models can come in many forms: oral examples of participating in a discussion;

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  • Using Appropriate Technology to Access Curriculum

    Technology Review While there are a variety of technological tools that can be used to aid students as they access curriculum, technology should never replace skill instruction. Teachers should be intentional about which programs and apps they choose to incorporate, as well as how they plan to utilize them within their lessons. Technology is best used

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  • Children reading on an ipad with a teacher assisting them

    Accessible Technology Across Grade Levels

    How to Choose Technology With a variety of technology options available for classroom use, it can be difficult to know what to choose and when to incorporate it. Joy Zabala’s SETT Frameworks provide helpful documents to aid teachers in determining if a technology is appropriate, as well as help them to consider which skills the

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  • A young child types on a laptop at a blue desk

    Written Expression and Technology

    Written Expression Overview Students with language-based learning disabilities (LBLD) can experience a multitude of receptive and/or expressive language difficulties. Receptive language skills are associated with listening and reading because the brain is receiving and processing language. On the other hand, expressive language skills are related to writing and speaking, as these tasks represent the expression

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  • A young boy in a classroom using a e-reader

    E-Reader Technology

    Reading Remediation Overview Reading remediation is often at the center of instruction for students with language-based learning disabilities. While prescriptive in nature, reading instruction can take many forms and follow a variety of programs. At the core of this remediation is the need for structured practice that includes specific and immediate feedback with an opportunity

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  • A young boy using technology to support his learning

    Technology to Support Executive Function

    What is Executive Function? Executive Function encompasses a variety of specific skills and abilities, including activation, focus, effort, emotion, memory, and action. Previous Free Landmark Teaching Strategies have further explained each of these categories with connections to how to implement specific approaches in class instruction. Hill, Skill, and Will by Gardner & Horan Seanna Moran

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  • A student uses a multiple modalities to learn a skill

    Categorizing as Practice and Review

    Practice and review help students develop automaticity. Automaticity enables students to focus their attention on applying knowledge and skills in complex situations. While worksheets and drills provide practice, another activity that students enjoy is categorizing cards. This multisensory strategy for review and practice is flexible enough to use across the curriculum. Students can practice with

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  • A teacher stands in front of a chalk board and speaks with students

    Ensure Automatization through Practice and Review

    Automatization is exactly what it sounds like—the ability to perform a task without conscious effort. From tying our shoes to scanning the headlines, we depend on automatic skills to get us through our days efficiently. Imagine what mornings would be like if we could not automatically shower, dress, eat, make coffee, and get to work. We’d

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  • Students and a teacher in a small classroom

    Essential Steps to Effective Instruction

    Motivating students can be challenging. Strategies such as “recognize and celebrate success” or “provide students with opportunities to make decisions and choices” are vital to teaching.1 Landmark’s Six Teaching Principles™ lie at the heart of our instructional strategies. When they guide instruction, these principles help motivate students because they foster engagement with schoolwork and provide students

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  • A student holding a pencil explains his thinking

    Include Students through Reflection and Evaluation

    Including students in the learning process, whether through explaining the purpose of an assignment, asking for ideas, or having students assess their own learning, helps them to become more engaged in their education. This resource shares ideas for how to guide students in evaluating and reflecting on their work. These self-assessments help them set goals for

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  • A teacher works with students around a table

    Include Students: Subject Strategies

    As the spring arrives and we begin to prepare for the conclusion of the year, we should continue to think about ways in which we can include our students in the learning process. Can they help determine ways to review material? What about having them make a portfolio of their best work from the year?

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  • A picture of different colored key with words written on them

    Lesson Planning Strategies

    On Overview of Resources Many of our resources have focused on working memory and processing speed under the umbrella of Executive Function. Within those two topics, the role of anxiety and the fundamentals of Cognitive Load Theory have also been introduced. • Executive Function: Dr. Thomas E. Brown’s article explores the 6 clusters of executive function

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  • Students and a males teacher conduct a science experiment

    Micro-Unit and Structure Tasks

    A bumper sticker that appears occasionally reads, “Assume Nothing.” While we don’t need to buy into its cynical view of the world, it does remind us that we often assume a lot about what our students know and what they can do. Poor work quality from students with learning disabilities most often reflects their lack

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  • A teacher helping a student while other students in the background have their hands raised

    Micro-Uniting Units

    Students often have difficulty managing language, connecting concepts, and staying focused on the goals of a content unit. As a first step toward increasing student success, teachers can break units or chapters into manageable language and concepts and teach each piece step-by-step, further micro-uniting these components as needed throughout the instructional process. Sharing the unit

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  • A young boy wearing a yellow tee-shirt completes a project

    Multisensory Homework

    Class lessons that engage students’ visual, auditory, and tactile/kinesthetic modes contribute to effective learning. What about homework? Planning multisensory homework assignments provides increased chances of success for students with different learning styles. This resource shares ideas for creating multisensory homework. For the full text of the Landmark Teaching Principles™, including “Use Multisensory Approaches,” click here.

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  • A female student with her hand on her chin smiles

    Provide Opportunities for Success

    It’s December. Class work has progressed from review to new material.  Homework is getting harder.  Some of your students may be struggling. Our mission is to empower students through their teachers.  Landmark Outreach shares thinking and strategies that support all students’ efforts to become independent learners and develop a strong sense of self-efficacy. At the

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  • Student and teacher reviewing a class routine

    Routines for Success

    We often talk about students’ success in relation to assessments and assignments, but their success in classroom discussions is equally important. This resource shares classroom discussion strategies related to the first of Landmark’s Six Teaching Principles™, “Provide Opportunities for Success.” When teaching lessons, begin by clearly explaining to students the goal and the plan of action.

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  • A unhappy students sitting among books

    Understanding Processing Speed

    What is processing speed? Processing Speed refers to the pace at which you are able to perceive information (visual or auditory), make sense of that information, and then respond. In a manner of speaking, processing speed is simply the amount of time it takes to get something done. According to the coauthors of Bright Kids Who

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