Resources

These resources were created and/or collected by Outreach staff to assist you in better understanding how to teach students with LBLD.

  • Reading and the Brain: What to Know

    Decades of research in the fields of literacy and neuroscience have helped to articulate what happens in the brain when we read. A crucial takeaway from this body of research is that the human brain is not hardwired for reading, meaning that for most people to learn to read they need to be explicitly taught.

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  • The Science of Reading: What to Know

    The Reading League, a national education nonprofit led by educators and reading experts, defines the science of reading as: A vast, interdisciplinary body of scientifically-based research about reading and issues related to reading and writing. This research has been conducted over the last five decades across the world, and it is derived from thousands of

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  • Scarborough’s Reading Rope

    Developed by Hollis Scarborough in 2001 and explained in her paper titled “Connecting Early Language to Later Reading (Dis)Abilities, this helpful infographic, often called Scarborough’s Rope or the Reading Rope, explains how essential language skills work together to develop skilled reading.  Similar to the equation in the Simple View of Reading R = D x

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  • What to Know: Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN)

    The act of reading requires the coordination of many cognitive skills. Students must understand that words in a given language are made up of distinct, separate sounds, and that when we read and write, these sounds are represented by letters. Not only is understanding this letter/sound code important, but the rate at which students can

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  • Early Identification for English Language Learners

    Students who are English language learners (ELL) are a valuable asset to school culture. Multilingualism is something to be celebrated, as fluency in more than one language is a valuable skill and can support other essential academic skills. Studies have shown that some students who are proficient in two languages may possess stronger executive function

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  • Letter blocks spell out the word "play", which has 3 phonemes. This activity supports phonemic awareness and phonics development.

    Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word Study

    Defining Terms Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes (smallest unit of sound) in spoken words. For instance, there are three phonemes in the word tree (/t/ /r/ /e/). Phonics is a method of instruction that requires the ability to connect sounds to letters and letter combinations in order to accurately read

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  • An educator measures a student's reading progress while he reads aloud

    Measuring Reading Progress

    How is Reading Progress Measured? Reading is a complex process that involves a variety of skills and components. Before determining a way to measure reading progress, the specific reading skill being measured must first be identified. Please note that phonemic awareness is not included here as that particular skill generally requires more complex progress monitoring.

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  • Elementary students practice reading and writing sight words with individual white boards

    The Reading and Writing Connection

    Reading and writing skills are the cornerstones of academic proficiency, and there are many cognitive processes that must coordinate in order for students to access content and demonstrate mastery. Literacy experts believe that reading is developed through a series of skills that help us connect our speech sounds to letters, those letters to words, words

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  • Reading Development: What to Know

    Reading is a complex process that requires the development and interaction of a variety of skills. Although reading is a crucial part of navigating the modern world, it is important to understand that the ability to read is a recent human invention and is not an inherent, genetic trait that all people possess. Humans can

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  • Reading Comprehension: What to Know

    In order for students to comprehend the information that they read, a variety of factors must be intact. First, students must understand the structure of the language they are reading, including grammar, syntax, and figures of speech. Students also need to be able to quickly decode words in order to read the text fluently, and

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  • Race, Equity, and Inclusion Reading List

    This reading list was inspired by the work of and conversations with Landmark’s Diversity and Inclusion Advocates, a group of faculty that strives to recognize racial and cultural inequality and to help make sure that the school community embraces diversity and is a welcoming and safe place for all. Reading stories that contain varied voices

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  • Effective Use of Context Vocabulary

    Vocabulary words are most useful to students when they recognize them in their reading and can use them in their writing. Therefore, it is important to introduce students to unfamiliar words before they are exposed to them in a text. If students come across an unfamiliar word while reading, they are more likely to wonder

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  • Games to Reinforce Reading and Spelling

    The Relationship Between Reading and Spelling What are the most effective methods for reading instruction? Much of the scientific research and data points to the importance of using a systematic approach to teaching reading. In other words, instruction must start with the origin of reading: recognizing, understanding, and manipulating the sounds we hear in our

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  • Finding the Main Idea: Prerequisite Comprehension Skills

    Finding the main idea or understanding what you read is one link in a chain of reading skills, and each skill relies on and supports one another. To comprehend text, students must first be able to understand the phonological components of language (that sounds are represented by letters), then they must be able to decode

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  • Students eagerly participate in a classroom lesson

    Promoting Student Interest and Motivation

    The Importance of Interest and Motivation Recent research about brain functions demonstrates the value of interest and motivation in the development of academic skills, specifically for secondary students. FMRIs have allowed researchers to study the activation of different areas of the brain during specific tasks. This research suggests that students need to be interested and

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  • Student practices vocabulary words in structured exercises with support from teacher

    Vocabulary Instruction

    Why is Vocabulary Instruction Important? Researchers know that vocabulary knowledge is strongly linked to academic success. Understanding vocabulary is the cornerstone of accessing background knowledge, communicating effectively, and understanding and learning new ideas. Students with strong word knowledge and vocabularies are able to understand new concepts and ideas more quickly than students with more limited

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  • An educator models fluent oral reading while a small group of students follows along

    Oral Reading Fluency

    What is Oral Reading Fluency? While the definition of oral reading fluency typically focuses on the rate and the correct pronunciation of words, tone and expression need to also be considered when evaluating, discussing, and addressing oral reading fluency. Expression (Intonation) and Volume should be varied and conversational. Students should be able to match their expression

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  • A young girl and a young woman work together

    Word-Picture Associations Help Students with LBLD Develop Vocabulary

    Special education teachers place a particular emphasis on effective strategies for teaching reading and vocabulary development, an area where most students with language-based learning disabilities (90%) have significant difficulties (Vaughn, Moody, and Schumm 1998). Rupley, Logan, and Nichols (1998) note that vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of successful reading, primarily, because a highly evolved

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  • open book on white background

    Improving Vocabulary Across Curriculum

    With the completion of Collaborative Strategic Reading, this resource focuses on improving vocabulary across the curriculum to improve student comprehension of the material. Why Vocabulary? Words are the essential foundation for everything we do to learn- every aspect of learning is tied to vocabulary and the ability to understand. Therefore, it is imperative that teachers expose students

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  • Using Appropriate Technology to Access Curriculum

    Technology Review While there are a variety of technological tools that can be used to aid students as they access curriculum, technology should never replace skill instruction. Teachers should be intentional about which programs and apps they choose to incorporate, as well as how they plan to utilize them within their lessons. Technology is best used

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  • Children reading on an ipad with a teacher assisting them

    Accessible Technology Across Grade Levels

    How to Choose Technology With a variety of technology options available for classroom use, it can be difficult to know what to choose and when to incorporate it. Joy Zabala’s SETT Frameworks provide helpful documents to aid teachers in determining if a technology is appropriate, as well as help them to consider which skills the

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  • A young boy in a classroom using a e-reader

    E-Reader Technology

    Reading Remediation Overview Reading remediation is often at the center of instruction for students with language-based learning disabilities. While prescriptive in nature, reading instruction can take many forms and follow a variety of programs. At the core of this remediation is the need for structured practice that includes specific and immediate feedback with an opportunity

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  • A young girl writing with a pencil at a desk in a classroom.

    Collaborative Strategic Reading: Click & Clunk

    This resource explored the second tenet of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) – click & clunk – and its connection to Landmark’s 5th Teaching Principle, “Provide Models.” For the full text of the Landmark Teaching Principles™, including “Provide Models,” click here. Click & Clunk is a strategy used during reading that allows students to monitor their

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  • Three female students sitting outside reading a book

    Collaborative Strategic Reading: Get the Gist

    Continuing with Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), this resource will examine the third step in the process: get the gist. While preview occurs before reading, both click & clunk and get the gist occur during reading. Essentially, get the gist refers to understanding the material and being able to identify who or what the reading is about (the topic) as well as

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  • Apply Language-Based Teaching Strategies in Science Class

    “When teachers instruct the language in a given science unit, students can more easily understand the concepts. Language-based exercises and hands-on activities used in conjunction to teach science concepts offers students with language-based learning disabilities opportunities for success in science class.” -Sophie Wilson, Landmark Elementary-Middle School Science Department Head Students with language-based learning disabilities often categorize

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  • Two young boys working together in a classroom

    Collaborative Strategic Reading: Preview

    Collaborative Strategic Reading is a method to appropriately engage students in meaningful lessons and discussions.1 CSR breaks down learning into four main parts (preview, click & clunk, get the gist, and wrap up). This ensures student understanding especially for students with LBLD who have difficulty processing language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). Throughout the year, the

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  • Students reading in a group in a library

    Collaborative Strategic Reading: Small Group Work

    After completing instruction in the Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) methods of preview, click & clunk, get the gist, and wrap-up, the teacher can implement this process through small group work, which is the focus of this resource.  Small Group Work Oftentimes, the teacher can utilize or adapt this concept of CSR to meet the needs of small group collaboration. By

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  • Children gathered around a computer

    The Role of Technology in Cognitive Load Theory

    In a different resource, research into technology and its role in the Universal Design for Learning classroom is reviewed. This new strategy will look at how technology can alleviate time demands, particularly for students with slow processing speed and impaired working memory. In order to fully understand the impact of technology, it is important to first

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  • Student and teacher working collaboratively on reading a book

    Collaborative Strategic Reading: Wrap-Up

    The final stage of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is wrap-up, which centers on reviewing. This is typically the stage where the class summarizes the points of the lesson, and the teacher forms assessments of the students’ understanding. In order to do this, the teacher must have determined what information the students are required to remember and

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  • A young boy looking intently at a book holding a pencil.

    Executive Function and Focus

    Sustaining focus (and effort) for long enough to complete a task, and shifting focus to a new task when appropriate are vital executive skills. Students who have difficulty sustaining and shifting focus benefit from being taught how to (and practicing) analyzing and breaking a task into sub-tasks or steps to follow. First, students need to

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