Executive Function and Memory

The ability to access and utilize memory is an important part of executive function. Thomas E. Brown, of Yale University, highlights memory as one of six clusters of executive function. He writes: “Chronic difficulties with memory appear to be a core problem… but the impairments are not generally with long-term storage memory; instead they involve ‘working memory,’ a term that has been used in many different ways, most of which are unrelated to the older term ‘short-term memory.'”

Working memory has several functions. One is to hold one bit of information active while working with another (as in solving an arithmetic problem). Another involves the retrieval of information from long-term memory. Many effective strategies to support (and develop) various types of memory are available—they range from computer-based brain interventions such as Lumosity, to meditation/yoga practices, to explicit study skills instruction!

To learn more about executive function and memory, read Thomas E. Brown’s short article from the February 2008 edition of Attention magazine, “Executive Functions by Thomas Brown.” For some practical suggestions for teaching memory strategies, read Regina E. Richard’s 2008 article on LD Online, “Making It Stick: Memorable Strategies to Enhance Learning.”

Landmark’s Teaching Principle™, “Ensure Automatization through Practice and Review,” guides teachers to build active memory strategies into their instruction.

This resource offers examples of study guides and references to help students review and practice concepts, and organize and reference information while learning concepts or when remembering ideas is a struggle.

For the full text of the Landmark Teaching Principles™, including “Ensure Automatization through Practice and Review,” click here.

Strategies to Download

Executive Function and Memory: Student References

These references help students access and utilize memory as they learn new information and concepts.


Executive Function and Memory: Study Guides

These guides help students access and utilize memory as they rehearse what they’ve learned in order to prepare for an assessment.


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